Skip to main content Skip to site navigation

Endnotes

HN Online Guide
  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). Physical Activity and Good Nutrition: Essential Elements to Prevent Chronic Diseases and Obesity. Washington, D.C.: USDHHS, CDC, 2001.
  2. Frank, L.D., P.O. Engelke, and T.L. Schmid, Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 2003.
  3. Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 U.S. 365.
  4. Frumkin, H., L.Frank, and R. Jackson.Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities.  Island Press, Washington, D.C., 2004.
  5. Frumkin, H., L. Frank, and R. Jackson. Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities.  Island Press, Washington, D.C., 2004.
  6. Saelens, B.E., J.F. Sallis, J.B. Black, and D. Chen. Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: An environment scale evaluation. American Journal of Public Health, 2003;93(9):1552-8; Frank L.D., T.L Schmid, J.F. Sallis, J. Chapman, and B.E. Saelens.  Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form: findings from SMARTRAQ. American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 2005;28(2 Suppl 2):117-25.
  7. Food Research and Action Center.  The Paradox of Hunger and Obesity in America.  Brandeis University, July 2003; Crawford, P.B., M.S. Townsend, D.L. Metz, D. Smith, G. Espinosa-Hall, S.S. Donahue, C. Diocson, and L.L. Kaiser.  How can Californians be overweight and hungry? California Agriculture; 58(1):12-17, January – March 2004.
  8. Morland, K., S. Wing, and A. Diez Rou (2002).  The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents’ diets: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study.  American Journal of Public Health. 2003 April;93(4):521.
  9. House Select Committee on Hunger. Obtaining food: Shopping constraints of the poor. Committee Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.
  10. California Center for Public Health Advocacy, PolicyLink, and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. Designed for Disease: The Link Between Local Food Environments and Obesity and Diabetes. April 2008.
  11. House Select Committee on Hunger. Obtaining food: Shopping constraints of the poor. Committee Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.
  12. Taha, H., S. Chang, and H. Akbari, (2000).  Meteorological and Air Quality Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Measures in Three U.S. Cities.  Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720.
  13. Ernst, M. and L. Shoup. Dangerous by Design: Solving the Epidemic of Preventable Pedestrian Deaths (and Making Great Neighborhoods). Transportation for America, Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, Washington, D.C., 2009.
  14. Frank, L., S. Kaveage, and T. Litman.  Promoting Public Health through Smart Growth: Building Healthier Communities through Transportation and Land Use Policie, and Practices.  Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Smart Growth BC, 2006.
  15. Ernst, M. and L. Shoup. Dangerous by Design: Solving the Epidemic of Preventable Pedestrian Deaths (and Making Great Neighborhoods). Transportation for America, Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, Washington, D.C., 2009.
  16. Transportation Research Board. The Relative Risks of School Travel: A National Perspective and Guidance for Local Community Risk Assessment, 2002.
  17. U.S. Census Bureau.
  18. Brownson, R., E. Baker, L. Housemann et al. (2001).  Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity in the United States.  American Journal of Public Health, 91(12): 1995–2003; Li, F., J. Fisher, R. Brownson et al. (2005). Multilevel modeling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59: 558–564; Rosenberger, R., Sneh, Y., Phipps. T., et al. (2005). A spatial analysis of linkages between health care expenditures, physical inactivity, obesity and recreation supply.  Journal of Leisure Research, 37(2): 216–235; Kaczynski, A. and K. Henderson (2007).  Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity: A Review of Evidence about Parks and Recreation. Leisure Sciences, 29(4): 315–354.
  19. Corti, B., R. Donovan, and C. Holman. Factors Influencing the Use of Physical Activity Facilities: Results From Qualitative Research. Health Promotion Journal Australia, 6: 16–21, 1996; Coen, S. and N. Ross. Exploring the Material Basis for Health: Characteristics of parks in Montreal Neighborhoods with Contrasting Health Outcomes. Health & Place, 12: 361–371, 2006.
  20. Kaczynski, A. and K. Henderson.  Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity: A Review of Evidence about Parks and Recreation.  Leisure Sciences, 29(4): 315-354, 2007.
  21. Powell, L., S. Slater, and F. Chalupka (2004).  The Relationship between Community Physical Activity Settings and Race, Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.  Evidence-Based Preventative Medicine, 1(2):135-144.
  22. Cities, Counties, Schools Partnership.  Located online at: www.ccspartnership.org.
  23. Flegal, K.M., M.D. Carroll, C.L Ogden, and L.R. Curtin (2010).  Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2008.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(3):235-241.
  24. Edwards, P. and A. Tsouros. The Solid Facts: Promoting Physical Activity and Active Living in Urban Environments: The Role of Local Governments. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006.
  25. Litman, T. (2002, August 2). The costs of automobile dependency and the benefits of balanced transportation. Victoria, BC: Victoria Policy Transport Institute.
  26. Frank, L.D., M.A. Andresen, and T.L. Schmid (2004). Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(2), 87-96.
  27. Reynolds, Conor, et al. (2009). The Impact of Transportation Infrastructure on Bicycling Injuries and Crashes: A Review of the Literature. Environmental Health, Vol. 8, No. 47.
  28. Cal. Gov’t. Code §§65300 and following.
  29. Edwards, P. and A. Tsouros. The Solid Facts: Promoting Physical Activity and Active Living in Urban Environments: The Role of Local Governments. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006.
  30. Alshalalfah, B. and A. Shalaby (2007). Case study: Relationship of walk access distance to transit with service, travel, and personal characteristics. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 133(2), 114-118.
  31. Dellinger, A. and C. Staybtib (2002). Barriers to children walking and bicycling to school.  Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51:701-704.
  32. McDonald, N.C. 2008. Critical factors for active transportation to school among low-income and minority students. Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 34(4):341-40.
  33. Teach Robbins, L. and L. Morandi. Promoting Walking and Biking: the Legislative Role. National Conference of State Legislatures, December 2002.
  34. Ewing, R., W. Schroeer, and W. Greene (2004). School location and student travel: Analysis of factors affecting mode choice. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1895:55-63.
  35. SB 375 (Steinberg, Chapter 728, Statutes of 2008)
  36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Climate Change and Public Health (2010).
  37. Cal. Pub. Res. Code §§21000 and following.
  38. Dannenberg, A.L., R. Bhatia, B.L. Cole et al. Growing the field of health impact assessment in the United States: an agenda for research and practice. American Journal of Public Health 2006;96(2):262–70.
  39. Center for the Continuing Study of the California Economy, Land Use and the California Economy:Principle for Prosperity and Quality of Life, San Francisco, CA: 1998.
  40. Feldstein, L. M., R. Jacobus, and H. Burton Laurison. Economic Development and Redevelopment: A Toolkit on Land Use and Health.  Public Health Law and Policy; California Department of Health Services, 2007.
  41. Breysse, P.N., W. Galke, B. Lanphear, and N. Farr. The relationship between housing and health: children at risk workshop. Report on the workshop. Information from: Children at Risk Workshop; November 7-8, 2002; Baltimore, MD.
  42. Anderson, L.M., J. St Charles, M.T. Fullilove, S.C. Scrimshaw, J.E. Fielding, and J. Normand. Providing affordable family housing and reducing residential segregation by income: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003;24(3S):47-67.
  43. See Palmer/Sixth Street Properties v. City of Los Angeles, 175 Cal. App. 4th 1396 (2009).
  44. Mills, G., D. Gubits, L. Orr, D. Long, J. Feins, and B. Kaul. Effects of housing vouchers on welfare families. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2002.
  45. Krieger, J. and D. Higgins. Housing and health: time again for public health action. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92(5):758-768; S. A. Bashir. Home is where the harm is: inadequate housing as a public health crisis. American Journal of Public Health 2002; 92(5):733-738.
  46. Public Policy Institute of California, Climate Change and California’s Local Public Health Agencies. Public Policy Institute of California, February 2008.
  47. Engrail, K., C. Norrby, and D. Norback. Sick building syndrome in relation to building dampness in multi-family residential buildings in Stockholm. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2001:74(4):270-278; Eggleston, P.A., A. Butz, C. Rand et al. Home environmental intervention in inner-city asthma: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Allergy and Asthma Immunology 2005;95(6):496-497.
  48. Pettit, K.L.S., G.T. Kingsley, C.J. Coulton, and J. Cigna. Neighborhoods and Health: Building Evidence for Local Policy. The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., 2003.
  49. Skodova, Z., I. Nagyova, J.P. van Dijk, A. Sudzinova, H. Vargova, M. Studencan, and S.A. Reijneveld, 2008. Socioeconomic differences in psychosocial factors contributing to coronary heart disease: A review. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 15(3):204-213.
  50. Gross, J. (2008). Community Benefits Agreements: Definitions, Values, and Legal Enforceability. Journal of Affordable Housing 17(2).
  51. Transportation Research Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Does the Built Environment Influence Physical Activity? Examining the Evidence. National Academies of Science, 2005.
  52. Spence, J. et al. Compilation of Evidence of Effective Active Living Interventions: A Case Study Approach. Toronto, Canadian Consortium of Health Promotion Research, 2001.
  53. Morland, K., S. Wing, A. Diaz Roux et al. Neighborhood characteristics associated with location of food stores and food service places. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2001; 22(1)23-29.
  54. Bassett, M.T., T. Dumanovsky, C. Huang, L.D. Silver, C. Young, C. Nonas, T.D. Matte, S. Chideya, and T.R. Frieden (2008). Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007. American Journal of Public Health 98(8):1457-1459.
  55. IOM (Institute of Medicine).  Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2009.
  56. Shaffer, A. The Persistence of L.A.’s Grocery Gap: The Need for a New Food Policy and Approach to Market Development. Los Angeles, CA. Center for Food and Justice, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute, Occidental College, 2002.
  57. Shaffer, A. The Persistence of L.A.’s Grocery Gap: The Need for a New Food Policy and Approach to Market Development. Los Angeles, CA. Center for Food and Justice, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute, Occidental College, 2002.
  58. PolicyLink & The California Endowment. Healthy Food, Healthy Communities: Improving Access and Opportunities through Food Retailing. PolicyLink & The California Endowment, 2005.
  59. Food Research and Action Center. FRAC’S Guide to Food Stamp Outreach Collaborations. Washington, D.C., September 2006.
  60. United States Department of Agriculture. The Benefits of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). November, 2009.
  61. Edwards, P. and A. Tsouros. The Solid Facts: Promoting Physical Activity and Active Living in Urban Environments: The Role of Local Governments. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006.
  62. Schweitzer, J.H., J.W. Kim, and J.R. Mackin. The impact of the built environment on crime and fear of crime in urban neighborhoods. Journal of Urban Technology, 1999; 6(3):59-73.
  63. Heath, G., R. Brownson, J. Kruger et al. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services. The Effectiveness of Urban Design and Land Use and Transport Policies and Practices to Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review.  Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3(1S): S55-S76, 2006.
  64. J.S. Mair and M. Mair. Violence prevention and control through environmental design.  Annual Review of Public Health 2003; 24:209-225; Crowe, T.D. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000.
  65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-08.
  66. United States Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service.  Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food: Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences, 2009.

 

Log in

Commands