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Sanitation Reform

HN Online Guide

The discovery of bacteria led to an understanding of the role of microbes in disease transmission. To stem the spread of disease, municipalities worked to create more sanitary conditions. Cities installed sanitary sewers and water-treatment systems. Local agencies cleaned streets and removed trash and contaminated waste. Establishing the most basic public health institutions — state boards of health and associations representing medical professionals — helped spur these sanitation reform efforts.

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